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Stefan Bauschard

The School Uniforms Debate

Download PDF Dr. Rachel Williams Should students have to wear uniforms in school? Politicians, parents, teachers, and students all have strong opinions on this issue. There are many arguments on both sides of this debate. We are going to go over a few of these arguments to explain both sides of the position. Why do some people say that all schools should have uniforms, while others say that school uniforms should be left in the past? Those who support school uniforms believes that wearing uniforms will increase school safety and decrease instances of bullying among students. Students wearing uniforms create fewer discipline problems, some experts say. They believe that wearing uniforms decreases bad and dangerous behavior such as fighting. Also, uniforms mean that it is very easy to identify intruders and people who don’t belong and may be a danger to the school. Bullying is another safety issue that experts believe can be solved by uniforms. Some students get teased or bullied because they are not wearing new or fashionable clothing or simply because they dress differently than the other kids. With uniforms, all students will fit in and no one will be singled out as strange or different because of their clothes. Supporters of school uniforms also believe that students who wear uniforms have better academic results. Because students will be focused only on their studies and not on their clothes, their grades will go up. They will spend less time on picking out clothes and more on doing their homework. Wearing uniforms also makes students feel like they are professionals: wearing official clothing puts students in the right mindset to work hard and behave well. School uniforms can also increase feelings of school unity and pride. When students are all wearing the same outfit, they feel a sense of unity and group identity that can make school spirit stronger. School spirit can set the tone for improving many aspects of the school. Students will work harder and behave better if they are not just thinking about themselves, but also thinking about how their actions affect the school as a whole. If school uniforms make students feel this school pride, the overall achievement level of the school will increase and problems will decrease. Another reason given by those who support school uniforms is that when students wear uniforms to school, this will decrease their feelings of being in competition with each other. All families are different: some have more money to spend on nice clothes and some don’t have very much. Students wearing uniforms do not feel that they need to keep up with the clothing other students are wearing and do not feel embarrassment about their own clothing. A uniform means all students see each other as equals and do not judge based on whether they can afford fancy clothing. Many supporters of school uniforms also say that school uniforms are helpful to poorer families because they will spend less money on clothing. Buying clothing for the new

Classes and Learning Objectives — Bauschard

PF 204-3 — 9-12-18 Today three of the students presented contentions from constructive speeches they worked on and a fourth shared some evidence cards that he found. We reviewed the contentions and arguments with an emphasis on four things. Common Core Standards Does the evidence match the tagline/claim the debaters associated with the evidence?  CSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.8 “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.” Does the evidence have reasons? We worked to identify the reasons/lack of reasons in some of the quotations/pieces of evidence. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.8.1 9.10.1  Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.8 “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.” Does Is the evidence qualified? We discussed how some of the authors of the evidence were not especially qualified.  All students were encourage to find better evidence, using the search techniques we discussed in the last class. CSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.8 “Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.” General —  CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.9-10.7 “Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.” We also generally discussed the use of “market’ references in much of the Con evidence the Con found and how that could be used as Pro evidence on a topic about public health services. Student feedback C prepared a pretty well-reasoned case with some paraphrased and some quoted evidence. I encouraged her to use more quoted evidence and to work on the consistence between the health impacts to discrimination and the case. M prepared a pretty well researched case, though I encouraged her to improve the quality of her sources and to carefully consider the whether or not the “market’ evidence belonged on the Con. She also produced a lot of good evidence at the end of the document that she tagged well.  Again, some source quality improvements could be made. L added some great inequality impacts to his case, but I pointed out the missing internal link between health care spending and inequality. We worked to find that evidence as well as increase the explanation in the second contention. W provided some quality evidence and is working to build it into a contention PF 203-1 9-4-18 Today we covered an explanation of all of the arguments related to the debate topic. Learning Objectives Students will develop a strong understand of all of the major

Gene Editing Topic Vocabulary

Gene Editing Topic Intro  Gen Editing Topic PPT Gene Editing Vocabulary CRISPR.  This is the gene editing technology that has been developed now. Gene editing. Gene editing simply refers to making changes in human genes that change the genetic make-up of a living organism Germline editing. The germline refers to the genes on the reproductive line — sperm, eggs, embryos. Editing the germline is uniquely controversial because those edits impact future generations.  In 2016, Chinese scientists made the first germline edits. Off-target.  This refers to what happens when scientists edit genes but end up with a result that is not what is intended. Many of the negative arguments about the negative consequences of gene editing are talking about off-target editing. Public health services.  Public health services are health services that are either provided by or overseen by the the government. Genetic disease.  A genetic disease is a disease that one is likely to develop based on their genes. Gene mutation.  An unexpected change in the make-up of the gene. Designer babies.  The idea of a designer baby is based on the idea that we could essentially design babies at birth who would be born with a certain genetic make-up. Off-target.  If a gene is editing the wrong way, there could be off-target effects that produce unintended negative consequences.   Related Vocabulary Libertarianism. Libertarianism is the idea that the government should exist only to protect the security of its people. Libertarians would object to public health services from a values perspective.   A popular libertarian website is misses.org  

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Argument Comparisons and Weighing Mechanisms

In the final speeches of the debate, it is important that all debaters weigh arguments – that they compare their arguments against their opponents’ arguments and then explain why their arguments are more important than their opponents’ arguments. Traditionally, debaters use a number of “weighing mechanisms” to compare arguments. Magnitude.  Magnitude is the simples of the weighing mechanisms to understand, as it simply asks which argument has the biggest impact.  If the Pro’s advocacy saves 500 lives but kills 200 people according to the Con, the Pro will argue they outweigh on magnitude.  Magnitude is a simple utilitarian (greatest good for the greatest number) impact calculus and helps to explain why debaters are always searching for large impacts. Probability.  Probability simply relates to how likely an impact is to happen. For example, if the Pro’s advocacy  (perhaps increasing employment) could lead to increased wages and increased jobs, but how likely is it that inflation will result and how likely is it that greater inflation will lead to an economic downturn?  Public Forum debaters often try to quantify these impacts in terms of percentages (there is a 2% chance that arms races trigger war, for example), but most risks are difficult to quantify and convincing anyone that something is a big enough risk to worry about involves persuasion, which is a core part of debate. Time frame. Time frame just speaks to which impact happens first.  For example, economic development may increase employment and reduce poverty in the short-term but trigger global warming and environmental decline in the long-term.  Debaters will argue that the impact that happens first should be prioritized, as we can always try to address other impacts later. Plus, we should try to live as long as we can J Reversability. There are two ways to think about reversibility.  First, is an impact reversible? For example, death is not reversible but broken arms and some forms of environmental damage are reversible. Economic decline is almost always reversible J. Second, does one impact reverse another impact?. For example, if the Pro’s advocacy causes economic decline, the Con can argue that it makes any impact the Pro claims to solve for (health problems, racism, etc) worse.  This is often expressed as, “our impact turns their impact…” Moral side constraint.  Some debaters will argue that we have a “moral obligation” to support their advocacy, regardless of the consequences.  This is a simple Kantian “moral side constraint” argument. Scope.  While the impact framing methods discussed above apply to all events, discussions of “scope” as a “weigh mechanism” only occur in Public Forum.  Scope deals with how many people are affected as compare to how many people die (which a magnitude claim usually gets at). So, for example, a policy may cause 100 broken arms, negatively affecting many people, but no one dies. In a straight comparison on any of these tests, the team that is ahead will win.  So, for example, if one team’s argument has a larger magnitude than another team’s

Topic Prep Course

Class 1 — Topic introduction lecture, discussion of contention ideas Homework: Write a contention Free topic essay Free topic bibliography Class 2 — Review 1st contentions work on second contentions, lesson on search engines (Bing, Baidu, Google), lesson on sample evidence, more topic brainstorming Homework: Finish second contention Class 3 — Review cases, practice cases, practice crossfire, discuss rebuttals Homework:  Start rebuttal prep Class 4 — Practice rebuttals against specific contentions, advanced rebuttal techniques instruction, crossfires Homework: Work on more rebuttals against contentions Class 5 — Practice rebuttals against specific contentions, crossfires, crossfire practice Homework: Work on more rebuttals against contentions Class 6 — Practice debates through rebuttals and crossfire — one on each side, feedback Homework: Improvements as suggested Class 7–  Summary speeches & weighing, practice weighing Homework: Start Summary speeches Class 8 — Summary speech practice, improvements; weighing mechanisms practice Homework: Weighing mechanisms exercise Class 9 — Topic revisit — cover other arguments on the topic we haven’t covered yet; check for understanding Homework: Adjust cases and rebuttal briefs Class 10 — Practice debate, feedback Class 11 — Practice debate, feedback (switch sides) Class 12 –How to win debates on turns, practice and execution Class 13 — Prepping crossfire questions Class 14 — Practice debate Class 15 — Final and review Learning Objectives Students will develop a strong understand of all of the major arguments on the debate topic. Students will learn how to research and write their own constructive speeches. Students will learn how to prepare their own rebuttal briefs on the topic and practice rebuttals against major arguments Students will develop their crossfire skills and practice crossfire questions on the topic. Students will develop their Summary speech skills and learn how to create Summary speeches on the topic. Students will develop their Final focus speech skills and learn how to create Final Focus speeches on the topic. Students will learn how to develop framework arguments, answer framework arguments, and weigh arguments. Students will develop flowing skills. Students will develop advanced strategies (as appropriate for experience level) that can be applied to any topic.

NSDA China Demo Classes

In cooperation with NSDA China, Global Academic Commons offers the following demonstration classes. Please register for the courses at [email protected] Topic Preparation This demonstration course is designed for students who already know the basics of Public Forum debate and wish to work on preparing for tournament competition.  The following will be covered during this course – 5 minutes — Introductions and getting to know the students 10 minutes — Very basic discussion of the topic 20 minutes — Key definitions and what the different definitions mean for the topic 10 minutes — Review Q & A 5 minutes — break 20 minutes — Quick discussion of major Pro arguments 20 minutes — Quick discussion of major Con arguments The lecture and discussion will be adapted to the general experience level of the students Introduction to Debate This demonstration course is designed for students who do not have previous experience with speech and debate and wish to work on learning the basics. For high school students, we will use the Fall NSDA China topic (gene editing) as an example. For elementary and middle school students, we will use school uniforms as the example topic. The following will be covered during this course – 5 minutes — Introductions and getting to know the students 10 minutes —What is debate and why do we do it? 15 minutes — What are the basic components of an argument? 15 minutes — Discuss with students as to what constitutes an argument. Students will give the instructor an example and we will work with the students to develop parts of an argument 5 minutes — break 5 minutes — Review Q & A 10 minutes — Introduction to sample topic 10 minutes — Generating arguments using the sample topic 10 minutes — How to construct a basic contention 5 minutes —  Review Q & A Introduction to Public Speaking This demonstration course is designed for students who do not have previous experience with public speaking and wish to work on learning the basics. For high school students, we will use the Fall NSDA China topic (gene editing) as an example to write a persuasive speech. For elementary and middle school students, we will use school uniforms as the example topic to write a basic speech. The following will be covered during this course – 5 minutes — Introductions and getting to know the students 10 minutes —What is public speaking and why is it important? 15 minutes — What are the key philosophies/ides behind public speaking? 15 minutes — The major parts of a speech 5 minutes — break 5 minutes — Review Q & A 10 minutes — Introduction to sample topic 10 minutes — Outline — students will outline the major parts of an introduction for the topic 10 minutes — Outline — students will outline the major parts of the body for the topic 5 minutes —  Review Q & A